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Hardening a meter against magnetic tamper attacks

In this section, we will cover how to harden a meter against these magnetic tamper attacks by using shunts for current sensors. For poly-phase implementations, I will go over how to use isolated delta sigma modulators to add the necessary isolation to use shunt current sensors and create magnetically immune poly-phase energy measurement systems. The TIDA-00601 and TIDA-01094 reference designs, which show how to implement a poly-phase isolated shunt measurement system, will be discussed as well as the associated AMC1304 high-side power supplies used in these designs.

Overview of temperature measurement in heat meters

This section introduces the heat and cold meter training series. The series covers the basics of RTD sensors and their usage in heat and cold meters, as defined in the EN1434 set of standards.

Measuring RTD sensors with Delta-Sigma ADS1220 family

ADS1220 Delta-Sigma family uses the ratiometric approach for measuring RTD sensors with the built-in current excitation source. Offset and gain calibration are required before the resistance measurement is converted into a temperature reading by the application MCU.

Differential Temperature Measurement sub-system reference design

TIDA-01526 implements a high-precision Differential Temperature Measurement (DTM) subsystem using a 24-bit, low-power, Delta-Sigma ADC. Heat and cold meter DTM subsystems typically use two 2- or 4-wire RTDs such as PT100, PT500 or PT1000 and can achieve measurement accuracy of 20 mK over a water temperature range of 3°C to 180°C. The MSP430FR6047 application MCU converts the resistance value into a temperature reading in TIDA-01526.

Digital temperature sensor replacement of RTD sensors with TMP116

The TMP116 digital precision temperature sensor for the -55 to +125ºC range achieves higher accuracy than the Class AA PT sensor with a 1-point calibration. A small PCB including TI's TPD1E10B06 or TPD1E04U04 protection devices can be sealed into a RTD metal tube and meet the EN 61000-4-2 and -4-4 levels of ESD protection. The 64-bit internal EEPROM inside TMP116 stores user defined calibration data into the digital temperature sensor, simplifying integration with application MCUs, such as MSP430FR6047, FR6989 or CC13xx/26xx wireless MCU families.

Introduction

This section covers what is meter tampering and why is this a problem for utility providers.  It also covers the advantages of shunt current sensors.  In addition, it introduces the isolated modulator and isolated metrology AFE architectures for adding isolation to shunts.

High-Side power supply options for powering shunt sensing devices

For both isolated modulator and isolated metrology AFE architectures, high-side power supplies are needed for each phase.  In this section, the different high-side power supply options that are available are discussed, which include cap-drop power supplies, isolated DC/DC power supplies with external transformers, as well as isolated DC/DC power supplies with transformers integrated. 

Implementing isolated shunt sensors using metrology AFEs and external isolators

In this section, the isolated metrology AFE architecture will be discussed.   The software and hardware design considerations for this architecture will be discussed.  In addition, the TIDA-01550 isolated metrology AFE reference design will also be discussed.

Implementing isolated shunt sensors using isolated delta sigma modulators and digital filters

In this section, the isolated modulator architecture will be discussed.  The software and hardware design considerations for this architecture will be discussed.  In addition, various isolated modulator designs will also be discussed and compared.

Comparisons between isolated shunt sensing architectures

Both isolated modulator and isolated metrology AFE architectures have their advantages with respect to each other.  Depending on system requirements, one architecture may be more feasible than the other.  This section compares the two isolated shunt sensing architectures and discusses which architecture is best for different system requirements.

Summary

In this section, a summary of the entire “Polyphase Current Measurement with Isolated Shunt Sensors” training module would be covered.  Links will be provided for the reference designs that were discussed during this training series.

Current sensor and metrology architecture options

This section compares two types of current sensors used in electricity meters: current transformers and shunts.  In addition, it discusses three different architectures for sensing the voltage and current samples used to calculate the metrology parameters.  These architectures include a SoC-based architecture, AFE-based architecture, and ADC-based architecture.

Introduction to TIDA-010037 reference design

This section provides an overview of the TIDA-010037 reference design, which uses the ADS131M04 delta sigma standalone ADC for sensing the voltage and current necessary to calculate metrology parameters.  The TIDA-010037 design targets Class 0.1 split-phase current transformer meters.

TIDA-010037 hardware design

This section provides an overview of the hardware used in the TIDA-010037 design, which includes information on the eFuse circuit used to create a current limited rail for connection to an external communication module.  In addition, this section discusses the circuits used to translate the Mains voltage and current to the voltage waveform sensed by the ADS131M04.

Designing software for split-phase electricity meters that use standalone ADCs

This section covers the initialization code and algorithms that can be used to calculate metrology parameters in a split-phase system using the sensed voltage and current samples

Calibration and metrology accuracy results

This section discusses the procedure used to calibrate the TIDA-010037 design and the results obtained with this design.

Summary

In this section, a summary of the entire “How to design high-accuracy CT-based split-phase electricity meters using standalone metrology ADCs” training module would be covered.  Links will be provided for the reference designs that were discussed during this training series.

Current sensor and metrology architecture options

This section compares two types of current sensors used in electricity meters: current transformers and shunts.  In addition, it discusses three different architectures for sensing the voltage and current samples used to calculate the metrology parameters.  These architectures include a SoC-based architecture, AFE-based architecture, and ADC-based architecture.

Introduction to TIDA-010036 reference design

This section provide an overview of the TIDA-010036 reference design, which uses the ADS131M04 delta sigma standalone ADC for sensing the voltage and current necessary to calculate metrology parameters.  The TIDA-010036 design targets Class 0.5 single-phase two-wire meters with shunt current sensors and has a compact, magnetically immune cap-drop power supply to power the design from AC mains.

TIDA-010036 hardware design

This section provides an overview of the hardware used in the TIDA-010036 design, which includes the circuits used to translate the Mains voltage and current to the voltage waveform sensed by the ADS131M04.  In addition, it covers the TPS7A78-based cap-drop power supply used in this design.
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