This section covers the basics of mechanical water meters and the principle of operation for impeller based water meters. There are multiple standards for water meters around the world; the EN ISO 4064 is relevant to all European countries and has been adopted under a different name in some other regions as well.
Water and heat meters share multiple system building blocks, such as the metrology sub-system and the application sub-systems, the Wireless communications part, the InfraRed optical port or the power solution. In this section, we will cover a new ultra-low cost single-chip LC-sensing solution utilizing the CC1350 Wireless MCU and its Sensor Controller Engine. Two external LC-tanks with a TI FemtoFET device each implement two rotation detection sensors, which measure the rotation of a half-metal/half-nonmetal disc, often used in mechanical water meters.
Some EU standards like EN1434-3 for heat meters require optical interface as per EN62056-21, where two separate IR LEDs are used (one for receive and one for transmit direction). TIDA-01212 shows an alternative approach, which uses a single IR LED to implement a bi-directional IrDA PHY link with 9.6 kbps in half-duplex mode. The design approach can the system reduce cost of any smart (sub-)metering device by replacing the legacy optical IrDA PHY modules with two separate LEDs.
This module covers the “Innovative 7-Segment LCD Control Using GPIO Pins and SW” section of the “Single-chip Smart Water meter with Dual-band RF link and InfraRed port” training series.
In 2019 more than 2.5 million industrial robots will be in operation worldwide, according to a forecast of the international federation of robotics. An industrial robot typically consists out of a control cabinet, a robot arm and a Human Machine Interface (HMI) Panel. To guarantee safe operation of the complete robot system, the different robot components and its interfaces need to be isolated to each other.
The training starts with an overview of an analog input module. Typical components and their voltage supply levels are shown. Next, possible power topologies like push-pull, flyback or flybuck with their advantages and disadvantages are discussed.
CNC routers use step and direction signals to control each stepper motors. In addition motor information (position, temperature, fault) gets transferred from stepper motors back to control unit. This must be done in star topology and a mix of proprietary interfaces. Simple open real-time Ethernet (SORTE) enables 4 µs cycle time on industrial Ethernet and replaces step/direction signal and motor feedback info into a single Ethernet cable that is also wired in line topology.
A common method to measure process parameters in plants is based on sound waves. This method is used in: level, flow and displacement field transmitters. It works based on measuring the time of flight (ToF) between when the pulse, generated by a piezo electric crystal, is sent and received back by the piezo.
This training helps to understand relevant parameter of a 4-20mA analog input module, such as surge protection, handling miss-wiring, broken wire detection, isolation or protection of the module against over-current at power and signal inputs.
Analog outputs in industrial automation come in a variety of configurations that each must deliver strong precision while passing stringent EMI /EMC certification tests. This session will address these systems and their challenges by explaining each configuration, and explaining example designs
Before we dive into specific application-based examples of noise and EMI mitigation, let's start with the basics. What is noise? What is EMI? What is ripple? How are they measured? What are some common approaches to limiting their effects? This section discusses these topics with a more conceptual approach to serve as a primer for the rest of the series.
Now that we understand the sources of EMI and noise in switching regulators, and some of the common approaches to mitigating each, let's take a closer look at real-world examples of reducing their effects. In this section we will examine the impacts of various mitigation techniques to help you decide which approach makes the most sense in your design. Techniques covered in this discussion include external component placement, filter options and design, frequency manipulation via spread spectrum or dithering, snubbers, boot resistors, and more.
Noise and EMI can be detrimental to sensitive analog signal chain circuitry. For this reason, many engineers automatically default to linear regulators. But, in doing so, they are essentially trading one problem (noise) for another (heat dissipation). In this section we will discuss what types of signal chain loads can be driven directly by a switching regulator to get low noise and EMI without sacrificing efficiency. We will also discuss when a linear regulator is absolutely needed to reach levels of noise not possible with a switcher.
Because of the potential havoc that interference can wreak in radio and safety critical systems, automotive electronics are subject to the most stringent EMI standards- the most common being CISPR25 Class-5. The materials below provide a discussion around the sources of EMI in an automotive environment and a comprehensive blueprint to understanding how to minimize it's effects.
In this training series, we will touch the gate driver applications, fundamentals of low side gate driver, high- and low side gate driver and isolated gate driver. And we will surely go deep and help you understand the gate driver design considerations with TI reference design and the corresponding critical waveforms.