# TI Precision Labs - Op Amps

TI Precision Labs is the electronics industry’s most comprehensive online classroom for analog engineers. The on-demand courses and tutorials include introductory ideas about device architecture in addition to advanced, application-specific problem-solving, using both theory and practical knowledge. Use these hands-on courses to predict circuit performance and move seamlessly from abstract concepts to specific formulae in an easy-to-follow format. Industry experts present each topic in order to help reduce design time and move quickly from proof-of-concept to productization.

The curriculum is segmented into major topic learning categories, each of which contains short training videos, multiple choice quizzes, short answer exercises, and hands-on lab exercises.

For a list of additional training topics, see the TI Precision Labs - Overview page.

### 1. TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Introduction

What is this training series about? Is it right for me?

These introduction videos give the background on the TI Precision Labs and explain their broad appeal to engineers of all experience levels. The second video introduces the National Instruments VirtualBench which is recommended for use in the hands-on labs accompanying the training modules.

# Title Duration
1.1 TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Introduction
TI Precision Labs is the electronics industry’s first comprehensive online classroom for analog engineers. This video provides an overview of the curr...
05:24
1.2 TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: National Instruments VirtualBench Overview
This video gives an overview of the National Instruments VirtualBench hardware and software.
07:23

### 2. TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Input Offset Voltage and Input Bias Current

How well do you know the major contributors to DC op amp input errors?

Understanding input voltage offset and input bias current specifications at room temperature are pretty straight forward.  However, what happens when the impact of temperature enters the picture?  How do you correctly interpret and apply the statistical distribution in datasheet graphs for these parameters to your overall error analysis?  You will walk away from this session with a thorough understanding of the two major contributors to DC op amp input errors:  input voltage offset (Vos) and input bias current (Ib).  We will go deeper than just the specifications and into how different input stage topologies and silicon process technologies impact Vos and Ib.

This video series covers op amp input voltage offset and input bias current theory, then applies it to a hands-on lab which includes TINA-TI circuit simulations and experimentation using a real circuit with test equipment.

# Title Duration
2.1 TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Vos and Ib
In this training we discuss op amp input offset voltage and input bias current specifications and their effects on op amp performance.
14:45
2.2 TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Vos and Ib - Lab
In this training lab we discuss calculations, simulations, and real world measurements that reinforce the concepts in the Vos and Ib video.
12:22

### 3. TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Input and Output Limitations

Have you ever experienced unexpected signal output behavior of an op amp, such as clipping or other non-linear behavior?

The cause of this may be either input common mode voltage limitations or output voltage swing restrictions.  Understanding data sheet specifications in the context of real world circuits will help you avoid experiencing this problem.  An inside look at an op amp's input and output stages on different process technologies provides additional insight.

This video series covers the theory behind op amp input and output swing limitations, then applies it to a hands-on lab which includes TINA-TI circuit simulations and experimentation using a real circuit with test equipment.

# Title Duration
3.1 TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Input and Output Limitations 1
In this video we discuss op amp input and output voltage limits and how to avoid circuit errors caused by these limits.
09:28
3.2 TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Input and Output Limitations - Lab
In this training lab we discuss calculations, simulations, and real-world measurements that reinforce the concepts in the input and output limitations...
11:08
3.3 TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Input and Output Limitations 2
In this video, we discuss the sources of common-mode voltage limitations in the op amp and the advantages and disadvantages of different op amp topolo...
14:41
3.4 TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Input and Output Limitations 3
In this video we discuss the details of output swing with respect to different output stage topologies and the effects of output loading and temperatu...
13:06

### 4. TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Power and Temperature

How hot is too hot? Does my circuit need a heat sink?

This series discusses the relationship between power dissipation and temperature in op amps and shows how to calculate an amplifier's junction temperature under a variety of operating conditions using its thermal model. Absolute maximum ratings and internal thermal protection schemes are also introduced.

# Title Duration
4.1 TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Power and Temperature
In this video we discuss the power dissipation of amplifiers, the op amp thermal model, and op amp temperature ratings.
17:30

### 5. TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Bandwidth

Did you know when calculating op amp bandwith you should always use the non-inverting gain?  Do you know why bandwidth impacts Iq?

In addition to answering those questions, we will show you nearly everything you ever wanted to know about op amp bandwidth including:

• Learn how Aol, loop gain, and 1/beta are used on bode plots to predict amplifier performance over frequency.
• Derive equations for the locations of poles and zeros using resistors, capacitors, and amplifier frequency limitations.
• Practice techniques for plotting poles and zeros on bode plots, and cover graphical and mathematical computations for closed loop bandwidth.
• Study how the time domain is related to the frequency domain using bode plots and scope results.
• Understand the relationship between bandwidth and Iq by using simplified models of the amplifier’s internal circuits.

This video series covers op amp bandwidth theory, then applies it to a hands-on lab which includes TINA-TI circuit simulations and experimentation using a real circuit with test equipment.

# Title Duration
5.1 TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Bandwidth 1
In this video we discuss units of op amp gain, bode plots and poles and zeroes, and the definition of bandwidth.
22:54
5.2 TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Bandwidth 2
In this video we discuss open and closed loop gain, gain bandwidth product, and quiescent current versus bandwidth.
13:36
5.3 TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Bandwidth 3
In this video we discuss the use of non-inverting gain for calculating bandwidth and some of the secondary effects on bandwidth.
15:05
5.4 TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Bandwidth 4
In this video we discuss several bandwidth related topics, including the slope of the open loop gain curve and the effects of op amp input capacitance...
15:31
5.5 TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Bandwidth - Lab
In this training lab we discuss calculations, simulations, and real world measurements that reinforce the concepts from the bandwidth video series.
05:59

### 6. TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Slew Rate

True or False? A large and rapid voltage change in an op amp's output is always limited by the slew rate of the device.

If you think the answer is true, or you have seen output slew behavior you could not explain, this session is for you!  We will provide an explanation of large and small signal analysis, slew boost, slew rate over temperature, slew rate vs. full power bandwidth, and the relationship of Vos and slew rate.  In addition, an inside the op amp view of the cause of slew rate limit is presented.

This video series covers op amp slew rate theory, then applies it to a hands-on lab which includes TINA-TI circuit simulations and experimentation using a real circuit with test equipment.

# Title Duration
6.1 TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Slew Rate 1
In this video we discuss the theory behind slew rate and compare the slew rate and current consumption of different TI amplifiers.
10:32
6.2 TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Slew Rate 2
In this video we discuss the body effect's impact on slew rate as well as settling time and the difference between large signal and small signal behav...
13:51
6.3 TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Slew Rate 3
In this video we take a deeper look at the transition from small signal to large signal response, as well as the effects of gain on op amp behavior.
11:22
6.4 TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Slew Rate - Lab
In this training lab we discuss calculations, simulations, and real world measurements that reinforce the concepts in the slew rate video series.
06:26

### 7. TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Common Mode Rejection and Power Supply Rejection

Rejection can be a good thing, especially in the case of common mode or power supply voltage errors.

This video series discusses how changing the common mode voltage or power supply voltage on an op amp can introduce errors at both AC and DC, and how those errors are mitigated by the op amp's built-in common mode rejection and power supply rejection.

# Title Duration
7.1 TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Common Mode Rejection
In this video we discuss the effects of changing the common mode voltage of op amps at both AC and DC.
08:25
7.2 TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Power Supply Rejection
In this video we discuss the effects of changing the power supply voltage of op amps at both AC and DC.
10:07

### 8. TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Noise

Did you know that a standard resistor component sitting upon your desk doing "nothing" is actually generating noise?

Understanding noise in a real-world circuit is critical to achieving your overall system noise performance goal,  but noise calculations are complicated and often require long hand calculations. After viewing this series and completing the associated exercises, you will be an op amp noise expert! You will be able to quickly calculate the noise of your circuit through five "rules of thumb" that drastically reduce the complexity of noise calculations. We will also show you how to simulate your circuit to validate your hand calculations. What if the op amp does not have a noise model? Don't worry - we'll show you how easy it is to create your own! Finally, we will demonstrate noise test techniques and take real-world noise measurements.

This video series covers op amp noise theory, then applies it to a hands-on lab which includes TINA-TI circuit simulations and experimentation using a real circuit with test equipment.

# Title Duration
8.1 TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Noise 1
In this video we define intrinsic noise, introduce the different types of noise, and discuss noise spectral density.
14:23
8.2 TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Noise 2
In this video we go into further detail on the regions of op amp noise and how to convert noise spectral density to RMS noise.
11:46
8.3 TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Noise 3
In this video we continue the noise discussion by performing a full noise calculation for a simple amplifier circuit.
07:49
8.4 TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Noise 4
In this video we provide several rules of thumb for simplifying noise calculations by identifying the dominant sources.Learn more about the
16:22
8.5 TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Noise 5
In this video we show how to perform noise simulations using TINA-TI, a free SPICE simulator.
10:52
8.6 TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Noise 6
In this video we show a comprehensive method for verifying simulation noise models and creating your own if necessary.
07:52
8.7 TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Noise 7
In this video we discuss techniques for measuring noise, including use of the oscilloscope and the spectrum analyzer.
15:55
8.8 TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Noise 8
In this video we discuss the details of 1/f or flicker noise.
16:51
8.9 TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Noise - Lab
In this training lab we discuss calculations, simulations, and real world measurements that reinforce the concepts in the noise video series.
13:10

### 9. TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Low Distortion Design

Distortion - a linear circuit's worst enemy. Where does it come from and how can it be reduced?

This video series introduces the sources of distortion in amplifier circuits, both internal to the amplifier and from external components. Design practices which minimize distortion are also given.

# Title Duration
9.1 TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Low Distortion Design 1
In this video we give an overview of the distortion video series and defines key topics related to op amp distortion.
11:49
9.2 TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Low Distortion Design 2
In this video we discuss distortion sources from the op amp's input stage.
19:28
9.3 TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Low Distortion Design 3
In this video we discuss distortion sources from an op amp's output stage.
13:59
9.4 TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Low Distortion Design 4
In this video we discuss external sources of distortion, such as resistors, capacitors, and power supply impedance.
13:29

### 10. TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Stability

Did the circuit you designed to create a precision DC output end up as an oscillator?

After viewing this series, you should have all of the tools and information to prevent this from happening again!  This session covers basic stability theory, applies it to SPICE  simulations, and then real-world lab experiments.  You will learn the common causes of op amp stability issues as well as common stability compensation techniques and their associated tradeoffs.

This video series covers op amp stability theory and then applies it to a hands-on lab which includes TINA-TI circuit simulations and experimentation using a real circuit with test equipment.

# Title Duration
10.1 TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Stability 1
In this video we discuss the common causes of op amp stability issues and how to identify these issues in the lab.
08:23
10.2 TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Stability 2
In this video we provide a review of Bode plots and stability theory using phase margin and rate of closure analysis.
13:04
10.3 TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Stability 3
In this video we explain how to perform open loop simulations in SPICE to obtain rate of closure and phase margin of op amp circuits.
06:30
10.4 TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Stability 4
In this video we explain how to perform indirect phase margin measurements in SPICE simulation and on the bench.
07:48
10.5 TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Stability 5
In this video we discuss why capacitive loads cause stability issues and present the isolation resistor compensation technique.
06:42
10.6 TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Stability 6
In this video we discuss the Riso with dual feedback stability compensation method.
06:45
10.7 TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Stability - Lab
In this training lab we discuss calculations, simulations, and real world measurements that reinforce the concepts in the stability video series.
14:50

### 11. TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: ESD

ZAP! Is your circuit protected against the thousands of volts which could be on your finger tips?

This series explains how electrostatic discharge, or ESD, can damage semiconductor components and what kind of internal protection circuitry is present in these devices.

# Title Duration
11.1 TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Electrostatic Discharge (ESD)
In this video we explain how ESD can damage semiconductor components and introduce internal ESD protection circuits in semiconductor devices.
12:56

### 12. TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Electrical Overstress (EOS)

Oops, what's that smell:  why did the "smoke test" fail?

This series covers the causes of electrical overstress and introduces several methods that can be used to improve and test circuit robustness against electrical overstress.  All of the examples in this series show op-amp circuits, but the methods used could be applied to other components as well.

# Title Duration
12.1 TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Electrical Overstress (EOS) 1
In this video we discuss the causes of electrical overstress and introduce methods to protect circuits against it.
09:01
12.2 TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Electrical Overstress (EOS) 2
In this video we discuss more devices which are used for EOS protection such as TVS diodes, ferrite beads, and RC filters.
08:21
12.3 TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Electrical Overstress (EOS) 3
In this video we show how to select components for EOS protection, focusing on TVS diodes and current limiting resistors.
10:39
12.4 TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Electrical Overstress (EOS) 4
In this video we discuss how a device is damaged by transient electrical energy and introduce the tests used to determine a product's robustness against...
11:20

### 13. TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Board Level Troubleshooting

My application circuit doesn't work! What should I do now?

This video series gives recommendations for best practice application debugging techniques. Various engineering checks are outlined to help determine the root cause of an issue.

# Title Duration
13.1 TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Board Level Troubleshooting
In this video we discuss a technique known as the A-B-A swap, as well as an introduction to PCB parasitics and the importance of PCB cleanliness.
14:52

### 14. TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Current-Feedback Amplifiers

What is a current-feedback amplifier, and when is it the best choice for your system design?

In this two-part series, you will learn the main advantages of current-feedback amplifiers, namely:

• Bandwidth independent of closed-loop gain, and
• Very high slew rates

You will learn how to perform loop-gain analysis, also known as stability analysis, on a current-feedback amplifier and compare it to the loop-gain analysis technique for a voltage-feedback amplifier. Finally, you'll receive a comprehensive summary of these two amplifier types, which will enable you to select the best amplifier for your end-application.

# Title Duration
14.1 TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Current Feedback Amplifiers - Overview and Compensation Techniques
This TI Precision Labs - Op Amps training is an overview of the current-feedback amplifier architecture, its benefits and how to effectively compensate...
19:56
14.2 TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Current Feedback Amplifiers - Slew Rate
This video explains how a current feedback amplifier (CFB) can achieve superior slew-rate and signal bandwidth compared to a voltage feedback amplifie...
17:56

### 15. TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Comparator Applications

While it may look just like an op amp, the comparator's function is quite different. Do you know the fundamentals of comparator applications?

This video series covers the functionality of the analog comparator and its key dc and ac specifications, how to apply hysteresis to protect against comparator input noise, and the pros and cons of using op amps as comparators.

# Title Duration
15.1 TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Comparator Applications 1
In this video we discuss the basic functionality of the analog comparator and some of its key specifications, including input offset voltage or Vos.
17:29
15.2 TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Comparator Applications 2
In this video we discuss how external noise can affect a comparator’s basic function, and how hysteresis can be used to solve noise problems.
11:25
15.3 TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Comparator Applications 3
In this video we discuss the difference between single and dual power supplies as well as the key AC and transient considerations of comparators.
11:41
15.4 TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Comparator Applications 4
In this video we discuss extra features integrated into some comparators, the use of op amps as comparators, and TI Precision Designs involving compar...
11:31

### 16. TI Precision Labs - Op Amps: Fully Differential Amplifiers

How would you convert a single-ended signal from a sensor to a fully differential signal in order to drive an ADC?

In this series on fully differential amplifiers (FDA), you will learn the benefits of differential signaling over the standard single-ended signal. You will be introduced to a new integrated amplifier architecture called the fully differential amplifier that converts a single-ended signal to a fully differential signal. Also discussed is how the integrated architecture is superior to a differential amplifier constructed using discrete single-ended op amps.

This video will prepare you to analyze the relationship between an input signal, an FDA's gain configuration and its input and output range compliance which is critical when interfacing to an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). You will also learn how to properly compensate and stabilize an FDA and how to verify the amplifiers phase margin in SPICE using TINA-TI macromodels.

# Title Duration
16.1 TI Precision Labs – Op Amps: Fully Differential Amplifiers – Introduction to FDAs and Differential Signaling
This video discusses the basics of differential signaling, its advantages over single-ended signaling and the three basic rules that govern how an FDA...
12:21
16.2 TI Precision Labs – Op Amps: Fully Differential Amplifiers – Input and Output, Common-Mode and Differential-Swing Analysis
This video discusses how to estimate an FDAs common-mode and differential swing at the inputs and the outputs and its dependence on the amplifier conf...
14:13
16.3 TI Precision Labs – Op Amps: Fully Differential Amplifiers – FDA Stability and Simulating Phase Margin
This video discusses FDA stability and open-loop gain. You will also learn how to calculate and simulate with TINA-TI for FDAs.
17:38
16.4 TI Precision Labs – Op Amps: Fully Differential Amplifiers – Noise Analysis, Advanced Compensation Techniques and Variable Gain FDAs
This video discusses the various noise sources of an FDA and the effects of using large resistors in the feedback network of high-speed FDAs.
15:55
16.5 TI Precision Labs – Op Amps: Fully Differential Amplifiers – Designing a Front-End Circuit for Driving a Differential Input ADC
This video discusses which configuration is the better solution to drive a differential-input ADC: two discrete amplifiers or one fully differential a...
18:56